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Non-Speech
Chirp! Captioning BB-8 in The Force Awakens

Chirp! Captioning BB-8 in The Force Awakens

How do the closed captions convey the changing meanings and emotions of the BB-8 droid's electronic beeping sounds?
Do sirens always wail?

Do sirens always wail?

How often are sirens described as wailing in closed captioning? What else do sirens do in closed captioning other than wail? Does it matter?
Tracking sonic timelines in closed captioning

Tracking sonic timelines in closed captioning

Each sustained sound in the closed caption track creates a sonic timeline that continues to persist until it is terminated through a change in visual context or a stop caption.
Closed captions as identity markers (leitmotifs)

Closed captions as identity markers (leitmotifs)

When the same nonspeech caption is repeatedly associated with a specific character or recurring context, it comes to serve as a kind of leitmotif for that character or context.
Drunk speech but sober captions: How manner captions do the heavy lifting

Drunk speech but sober captions: How manner captions do the heavy lifting

How writing homogenizes speech and how the non-speech manner caption attempts to re-embody speech...
Captioned hypnosis

Captioned hypnosis

Recurring sounds on TV shows allow us to explore questions of consistency and accuracy in closed captioning.
Closed captioners don't caption sounds.

Closed captioners don’t caption sounds.

Closed captioners don't caption sounds in isolation. They caption shows.
Busy signal or engaged tone? Captions, language variety, and localized accessibility

Busy signal or engaged tone? Captions, language variety, and localized accessibility

On the need to consider differences among varieties of English when captioning non-speech sounds...
In a manner of speaking

In a manner of speaking

When a character's accent is meaningful or when a scene or line of dialogue hinges on how a character speaks, manner of speech needs to be indicated in the closed captions.
Logocentrism: The tendency to privilege speech over non-speech in closed captioning

Logocentrism: The tendency to privilege speech over non-speech in closed captioning

Does logocentric thinking shape closed captioning practices?
Captioning the faintest sounds when they're part of a repetitive series

Captioning the faintest sounds when they’re part of a repetitive series

Does every repetitive sound need to be captioned? What visual cues are sufficient to indicate a repeating sound in the absence of a caption?
Captioned irony: How captions manipulate narrative time and viewers' knowledge

Captioned irony: How captions manipulate narrative time and viewers’ knowledge

Inspired by the notion of dramatic irony, I offer a definition of "captioned irony."
[Groan] or Ahh? Series awareness and alternative captions

[Groan] or Ahh? Series awareness and alternative captions

Should a running gag be captioned the same way each time it occurs?
Sonic allusions and cultural literacy for captioners

Sonic allusions and cultural literacy for captioners

How should cultural allusions be closed captioned?
Zoom Zoom: Selling caption space

Zoom Zoom: Selling caption space

What if closed captions were bought and sold as a form of product placement?
Stylistic standards for closed captioning and data mining

Stylistic standards for closed captioning and data mining

When speaker IDs, musical lyrics, and sound descriptions have their own distinctive stylistic treatments, they can be extracted from closed caption files and studied as separate units of discourse.
Why that zombie is really moaning (and not groaning)

Why that zombie is really moaning (and not groaning)

An analysis of three captions from Shaun of the Dead (2004) suggests how sound descriptions need to be informed by the sounds and captions that surround them. In this case, "moaning" is suggested as a better fit than "groaning."
If it weren't for Speaker IDs, I'd have no idea what's going on

If it weren’t for Speaker IDs, I’d have no idea what’s going on

An analysis of one scene from Moon (2009) starring Sam Rockwell. The scene's captions make use of Speaker IDs to identify speakers who are off-screen. But in doing so, the Speaker IDs fill in a major piece of the narrative puzzle.
Curb: Five sounds that should have been captioned

Curb: Five sounds that should have been captioned

An analysis of five sounds from Curb Your Enthusiasm (Season 2) that should have been captioned. Only dialogue is captioned in this season of Curb on DVD.
Captioned thematics: How captions make interpretative patterns visible

Captioned thematics: How captions make interpretative patterns visible

Closed captions can help viewers recognize themes and patterns in movies that might otherwise remain latent.
Undercaptioning: Beyond subtitles in Curb Your Enthusiasm

Undercaptioning: Beyond subtitles in Curb Your Enthusiasm

Scratching sounds play a prominent role in this episode from Curb Your Enthusiasm. But because they are not captioned, the full significance of the episode is only available to hearing viewers.
Overcaptioning: Which sounds are significant?

Overcaptioning: Which sounds are significant?

Which sounds are significant? How does the captioner choose which sounds to caption? Are some captions unnecessary? Why isn't it possible to caption every sound in the environment?
Twilight: Captioning the "gaspiest" movie ever

Twilight: Captioning the “gaspiest” movie ever

How should gasps, groans, sighs, grunts, scoffs, moans, pants and other assorted "breathy" sounds be captioned? When should they be captioned? What's the difference between them? Why does it matter?
Whispers and other sounds you were never meant to hear

Whispers and other sounds you were never meant to hear

An analysis of attempts by fans to make audible the whisper at the end of Lost in Translation.